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Teaching Ideas

July 06, 2002

Learning and Acquiring Language

Andy Hoodith


Saitama University

Although the distinction between learning and acquisition can be explained fairly simply, when applied to the process of becoming proficient in a language this is in fact a very complex area, not least because how we learn our native languages is still far from clear. However, for the purposes of this article and the lesson plan which follows, the following broad distinction is a useful starting point:

Learning a language involves a conscious effort on the part of the student and is focused on a specific area of the target language, for example a grammar point or piece of vocabulary. This implies a view of language as, at least in part, a body of knowledge to be taken on board by the learner.

Acquiring a language implies that aspects of the target language are 'picked up' rather than formally learned, and that this process occurs during various acts of real communication. It has been suggested that children acquire their native language, particularly in their early years before formal instruction begins, by observing, internalizing, and copying a variety of rules which they then apply (often incorrectly at first) during genuine communication. In contrast, a teenage Physical Geography student may be required to learn the names and characteristics of the various types of clouds.

In terms of teaching English as a second or foreign language, we can sometimes see clearly which category, learning or acquisition, a particular classroom activity falls into. If we wanted to teach ten vocabulary items connected with clothing to a group of students, the following two methods would be among the many options available to us:

Method 1:
The teacher asks the students to memorize them for the next class, and then tests their ability via the use of pictures, sentences with appropriate gaps in them, or some other means over a period of several classes.

Method 2:
At the beginning of the class, the teacher makes some casual comments concerning his/her own or the students' clothes. At various points in this and subsequent lessons the teacher refers informally to aspects of dress and encourages students to make comments of their own. At no point would the teacher say anything like, "Today we're going to study clothes." The students would, in contrast, be exposed in a low-level way, to the target vocabulary.

The first method is clearly on the learning side of the spectrum: the students know what they're required to do and will be able to gauge their degree of success by the test result. The second method makes some attempt to allow the students to acquire the vocabulary and does not explicitly involve conscious, focused effort: the language 'occurs' as part of an informal chat or as an aside during the class.

The debate on the implications for teachers of the distinction between learning and acquiring a language is ongoing. It should be noted however, that although acquisition may seem more appealing because it promotes communication over the formal learning of rules, many variables come into play and complicate the issue. Below are some of the questions raised by this distinction:

• Which end of the learning/acquisition spectrum is most efficient for making progress in different language skills (reading, writing, speaking, listening)?

• Would a particular method be effective with all types of students? (probably not)

• Is chatting with a class for an hour to promote acquisition a valid activity? (possibly, but not for every hour of every class)

• How can we structure activities which promote acquisition in the classroom?

• What mix of methods is best for your students?

There isn't the time or space to go deeply into answers to these fundamental questions, but the following two lesson plans, which have the same broad aim and are laid out in parallel, contrast a 'learning'-based approach with an 'acquisition'-oriented one.

TIME: 45 Minutes

TOPIC: • Past/Present Simple Verb Tense Forms
• Talking about the past & the present

AIM: To increase student proficiency in using the Past Simple and Simple Present verb tense forms.

'LEARNING' Lesson
'ACQUISITION' Lesson


'LEARNING' Lesson

PRESENTATION

T: "Today we are going to study the simple past and present simple verb tenses. Can anyone give me an example of a verb in the past tense?"

After getting or supplying a couple of examples, T shows the following table on the BB or on a handout:

SIMPLE PAST (REGULAR VERBS)

Infinitive: to play
Simple Past: played

If the verb ends in 'e' add 'd' only:
Infinitive: to dance
Simple Past: danced


ACTIVITY 1

T distributes the following list and reads the instructions to the class:

Look at the lists of verbs. Fill in the simple past for each one:

work

watch

listen

cheer

fold

walk

smoke

stay

save

push

pour

look

own

hope

finish


ACTIVITY 2

Students compare answers before the teacher goes through them with the class.


ACTIVITY 3

T: "The present simple has the same form as the infinitive in positive sentences. Look at these examples:"

I walk - You walk - He/She/It walks
We walk - They walk

Irregular verbs form this tense in the same way.

T: Writes the following sentence on the BB and says, "Change the following sentence from the simple present to the simple past:"
We walk to school every day.
We walked to school every day.


ACTIVITY 4

Students are given 10 sentences to transform in the same way.
(no irregular verbs)

Top


'ACQUISITION' Lesson

INTRO

T: "Today we are going to talk about our home towns; the places where we lived when we were children and the places where we live now."


ACTIVITY 1

T distributes handout with the lyrics of the song 'Yellow Submarine' by the Beatles.

T: "Listen to the song and think about your home town, where you went to school, what you did in your spare time."

T plays the tape.


ACTIVITY 2

T asks several students these questions:
"Where did you live?"
"What was the name of your school?"
"What sports did you play?" etc.

If the student's answer contains a mistake, T repeats the answer correctly but does not explicitly refer to the error.


ACTIVITY 3

Work in pairs. Ask your partner questions about his/her home town and what he/she did there.


ACTIVITY 4

Now ask your partner about the town or area they live in now, and about what they do there.


Andy Hoodith
Andy Hoodith is an author and works at the National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies. He is also a life-long supporter of Manchester City Football Club.



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